Global circulating winds can carry bacteria, fungal spores, viruses and pollen over long distances and across national borders, but the United States is ill-prepared to confront future disease outbreaks or food-supply threats caused by airborne organisms, says a new paper published in the Ecological Society of America’s journal Ecological Applications.
Claire Williams, the paper’s primary author and a research professor at American University, has spent decades studying long-range transport of tree pollen. Her early findings led to collaborations with German and Russian scientists who conducted a wide range of research – on forest genetics, atmospheric chemistry and climate change – all under the unifying theme of atmospheric biology.
“The more I learned about pollen aloft, the more I came to understand that pollen is part of a large airborne milieu of what I call ‘aerial plankton’ – bacteria, fungi, lichen soredia [reproductive structures], insect parts, viruses and more,” said Williams.
Zotino Tall Tower Observation Facility (ZOTTO) and its surrounding forests in central Siberia. Photo courtesy of Anastasia Makhnykina, Sukachev Institute of Forest, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.
Now, having seen the highly integrated and well-funded atmospheric biology research underway in Germany and Russia, Williams wants U.S. leaders to understand the value of atmospheric biology to national security – and recognize that the United States is coming up short.
The persistent threat of Valley Fever is one example of how well-coordinated research is critical when responding to threats. Valley Fever is caused by the inhalation of Coccidioides fungus, which lurks in hot, dry soils of the southern United States. Monitoring and mitigating outbreaks requires an understanding of land use, meteorology and human risk factors. And because fungus spores, bacteria and pollen do not obey borders or boundaries, responding to diseases like Valley Fever can also require international collaboration and diplomacy.
In the United States, research and monitoring of airborne organisms is split between an array of federal agencies. The Department of Agriculture monitors airborne pathogens that threaten food supply, the Department of Defense oversees biological warfare agents such as anthrax, the Center for Disease Control studies human-health impacts of airborne pathogens, and additional contributions to atmospheric biology research are spread across the National Institutes of Health, United States Geological Survey, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, Department of Energy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
While it makes sense for each department or agency to carry out research relevant to its responsibilities and interests, the lack of coordination and information-sharing can effectively cripple the U.S. response to national security threats, such as pandemics, that require cooperation and input from multiple agencies.
“The time has come – after all, pandemics are caused by airborne viruses and a host of airborne pathogens, pests and parasites,” said Williams. “If we pieced together the expertise that we do have in a host of U.S. science agencies, we would be better prepared for the next pandemic or disease outbreak.”
Guide to the Powder Coating Process
Powder coating is a process used to apply a dry powder to products. It is often used to apply a colored finish to products, such as appliances, automotive parts, bicycles, and other common items. Below you’ll find a guide to how powder coating is applied and the benefits of choosing this option.
4 Basic Steps to the Powder Coating Process
Powder coating follows a pretty simple four-step process.
The first step in powder coating is to prepare the piece that is about to be coated. This means removing any dirt, oil, grease, and other items. It can be done through several methods, including chemical pre-treatment and sandblasting. Depending on the product, the item being coated may be heated up at this point.
The next step is to apply the coating. Most often, this is done with a powder coating gun, which is electrostatic. The item being sprayed is grounded.
As the powder flows out of the powder coating gun’s nozzle, it travels through a negatively-charged electric field. The grounded item then attracts this coating, creating an even coating.
After the powder is applied, the item is moved into an oven. The heat helps to melt the powder, turning it into a flowing, smooth, seamless cover.
4. Additional Coats
For most items, one coat is enough. However, some require a thicker coating. In this case, the item would be coated again, using the powder coating gun, and then reheated. The process is completed as many times as necessary to achieve the desired result.
Benefits of Powder Coating
There are a few reasons that powder coating is a popular process, including those below:
Unlike paint, there are no solvents in powder coating, and they release little to no VOCs. This makes it more friendly to the environment.
Due to the liquid nature of paint, there is always a chance of having uneven layers. You might notice some areas where the paint is running or dripping, ruining the overall look of the finished product. The powder coating process, however, ensures that your product comes out with a smooth finish.
You can add several layers of powder coating to produce a much thicker finish, and it cures fairly quickly. With paint, the more you add, the longer it takes the product to finish.
Powder coating also allows you to add several different colors to one layer before heating it. This means that you can create smooth special effects and designs.
When you’re looking to add a finish to the metal, aluminum, and similar surfaces, powder coating can provide many benefits of overpainting. Using a powder coating gun and oven, you can create a smooth, consistent, professional-looking finish to your product.
Most Popular Features of Master-Planned Communities
Is It Beneficial Leasing an Airplane?
If you planned on getting yourself a private jet or a fleet of airplanes, then you know your case the best. Better than anyone else can guide you or teach you about the pros and cons.
Buying a jet is not something that you do every day when you wake up; for some, it is once in a lifetime, and for some, it is just a daily business that generates revenue. Suppose you are starting to fulfill your dreams and aspirations by buying a luxurious plane or starting a small airline company. In that case, this article will briefly take you through the famous question of ‘is it beneficial leasing an airplane?’
If you can buy an airplane or put up a loan sanction against it, you must take that road because there is no better feeling than ‘ownership’. But if you do not want to invest a big chunk of money into buying an airplane, the best way to enjoy the experience would be to lease it for a couple of years.
Most airline companies nowadays lease at least some of the jets that they have. There are technical aspects intermingled with it as the lease price of 10 aircraft would certainly be almost ten times lesser than the actual price clubbed together. You can quickly get yourself to save a great deal of money while leasing a couple of airplanes, especially if you are in the airline business.
Often, the leasing companies offer you the crew, pilots, insurance, and other benefits covered in your leasing agreement. So, you can always take that trip around the globe whenever you want, as you will always have a cabin crew ready to fly. On the other hand, if the lease does not offer the benefits, you will need to look elsewhere.
Thankfully, recruiting a pilot and other crew members is not that difficult, especially if you are looking to get them for a private jet. What you can do is seek some professional assistance to find the right crew. Aerospace Union Limited can point you in the right direction.
But, on the other hand, if you choose to loan or buy a plane of your own, you will have to figure out everything starting from the operational costs to the training of crew and even pilots, which becomes an arduous process least. If your requirements are singular and not frequent enough, it is better to lease an aircraft rather than fully fund it. Because who wants to let go of all the additional benefits that really come in handy along with the lease agreement!
Freedom of Use
With business airplane renting or personal luxury plane renting, it’s yours to do as you will inside the rent term. Inside legitimate and protection limits and any rent conditions, it’s dependent upon you where the airplane flies, when it flies, and how frequently you take a trip. The only limitations are climate conditions, air traffic rules, booked upkeep, and the accessibility of your pilots and group.
Personal luxury plane renting gives you admittance to a more extensive scope of air terminals than business trips through carriers. This can permit you to land nearer to your final destination, decreasing the time spent and extra efforts brought about by booking and voyaging through road transport like cabs, buses, etc.
Renting an airplane liberates you from the endless formality and holding up occasions included when taking business flights. There are more and more additional benefits and a bubbling sense of luxury that you will experience if you go ahead with the plan of leasing an aircraft!
Most aircraft leasing options come to you with a choice- own or not to own after the period ends. Although you keep on paying a regular sum for years on end, you can decide if you want to complete the remaining payments and own the jet or try your luck with a new fleet.
On most occasions, after 10-15 years, airplanes with more recent technologies are launched, which makes the decision of keeping the aircraft previously on lease a decision that isn’t much feasible for people. But, the entire availability of having a choice is all you need when you are getting yourself in an agreement with a party. You never know if you can extract more benefits from the same flights.
As you can see, the benefits of leasing an aircraft are supreme as they come with a lot of additional growth points. You can always ride your plane with ease and comfort whenever you want without having the burden of financing a considerable amount of money for an aviation unit that will probably be replaced with new technology in the next couple of years.
So, if you are someone who’s just buying the jet for meetings around the globe or just because they want to feel the luxury, then the best thing to do is to lease the aircraft without thinking much about it. So, are you ready to fly and up to reach your world of dreams with zero hassles?
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