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Christmas Meaning, Christmas History, Christmas Facts

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What is the meaning of Christmas?


The word Christmas is derived from two words Christ and Mass. The word Christ comes from old English word Crist which mean “anointed one” which means nominated or chosen as successor, “the Lord’s Anointed”. The word mas evolved from the old English word “maesse” which means festival, feast day or mass.
So Most of the Christians believe that “Christmas” means the festival and celebration of the Jesus Christ’s (Who is the son of God) birthday, which is celebrated on 25 December each year in the whole world.

History of Christmas:


There is a different festival in different religions and nation that become the base of Christmas origin.

1: Winter Solstice that happens on December 21st and 22nd, it is time when there is the shortest period between sun rising and set setting. The Roman pagan celebrated this festival because they thought it to end of winter and start of spring. Some part of northern Europe and Scandinavia Winter Solstice is also known as Yule.

2: Saturnalia (a holiday in the honor of Saturn (the god of agriculture) was celebrated December 17-25. This festival began when Romans chose a person who is enemy of Roman people and represented him as “Lord of Misrule”. Each community of Roman selected a victim whom they served whole week with food and physical pleasure and at end of the festival on 25 December murdered him brutally as they believed they were destroying the forces of darkness.

3: In the 4th century decided to institute the birthday of Jesus as a holiday. So 25th December is chosen by Pope Julius I in an effort to adopt and absorb the pagan Saturnalia festival. The Christians adopted Saturnalia as hoping to covert Roman pagan toward Christianity. They converted many of pagans by promising to continue the celebration of Saturnalia.

4: “Ḥanukka” the Jewish festival also called the festival of candles and lights is celebrated Kislev 25( According to Gregorian calendar comes in December) and celebration remains for eight days. It commemorated when Jewish people rededicated and worshiped in their temple Jerusalem. Because they were not allowed to follow their religion for many years. Because Jesus was a jew so this could be a reason church choose 25th December as Jesus birthday.

5: Today in Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches the Christmas is celebrated on 6th December, they also celebrated Epiphany or Three Kings Day (Three wise men who visited and gave gifts to Jesus).

6: In the Western world the celebration of Christmas spread in the next several centuries. Bible does not mention the exact date of Jesus birth, so Jesus born on 25 December? Probably not. Most Christians still continue to celebrate Epiphany or Easter as most important days. In the past the Puritans of colonial New England even banned the celebration of Christmas as an offering of gifts and decorating trees they linked with paganism. In the early days of United state celebration of Christmas was considered as British Custom. It has not become a federal holiday until 1870.

Facts about Christmas:


Gift giving on Christmas:

The gift-giving tradition is associated with paganism. Gift giving was the custom on the festival of Saturnalia. Another association of gift giving is from Magi (Three wise men ) who gave the gift of gold, frankincense, and myrrh to Jesus.

Santa Claus on Christmas:

In the middle age Santa Claus (a jolly stout man wearing a white and red suit) became the part of Christmas traditions. The character of Santa Clause is inspired by a Christian bishop St. Nicholas lived in Turkey in the 4th century. He had inherited wealth and famous for helping the poor children and gave them gifts.

Milk and cookies for Santa:

Dutch kids on feast day would leave food and drink for St. Nicholas. So now Christians leave milk and cookies for Santa Clause.
Carrots for Santa horse: Norse children left hay and treat for Odin’s eight-legged horse Sleipnir with the hope God would stop their home during his Yule hunting adventure. So Christians left carrots for Santa Claus reindeer.

Christmas tree:

The pagan and Christians used the evergreen fir tree to celebrate the winter festival for thousands of years. In the festival of Saturnalia, the pagans decorated their temples with Fir trees. Christians used the Fir tree as a symbol everlasting life with God.

Lights on Christmas tree:

Lights is a symbol of good and hope in the world. It also reminds the good Christians to provide light to others. In the 18th century, people decorated it with candles and later and now it is decorating with electric lights.

Jingle Bells song:

Jingle Bells is a famous song in the world especially on the occasion of the Christmas. It was originally titled The One Horse Open Sleigh. It was meant for Thanksgiving program at a church in Savannah, Georgia where Pierpont was an organist. The song was very much liked that it again was sung at the time of Christmas that it became the popular song of Christmas.

Gingerbread cookies:

Gingerbread cookies have importance on Christmas. It history associated with Queen Victoria, and her German-born husband Prince Albert who brought it in vogue and include it with other German Christmas traditions.

Orange in the stocking:

This tradition is associated with St. Nicholas who helped the poor man who had three daughters and could not afford the dowry. St. Nicholas tossed the gold bag down the man’s chimney, where it is ended up in daughter socks, which were drying by the fire. Later people honor the act by gifting oranges instead of gold.

Wreath at Christmas:

It is a headdress made from leaves, flower, and branches. Wreaths originally come from pagan rituals where it is associated with fertility and changing seasons. In Christianity, it represents an unending circle of life and evergreen tree flowers and branches are used that represent that symbolizes growth and everlasting life.

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Daily Mail News Headlines

NHS shutdown risks thousands of deaths in Covid-19 second wave

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NHS shutdown risks thousands of deaths

The NHS will dispense torment, hopelessness and danger of death on a huge number of patients in the event that it again closes down typical consideration when a second flood of Covid-19 hits, specialists’ and specialists’ pioneers are cautioning.

They are encouraging NHS supervisors not to utilize a similar clearing terminations of administrations that were acquainted in March with assistance emergency clinics adapt to the gigantic flood of patients truly sick with Covid.

“The NHS should never again be a Covid-just help. There is an obligation to the a large number of patients holding up out of luck and in torment to ensure they can be dealt with,” said Prof Neil Mortensen, leader of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

The pioneer of Britain’s primary care physicians cautioned that emergency clinics ought not leave patients “abandoned” by again suspending a wide scope of symptomatic and treatment administrations.

“We can’t have a circumstance wherein patients can’t get to symptomatic tests, facility arrangements and treatment which they direly need and are basically left abandoned,” said Dr Chaand Nagpaul, seat of chamber at the British Medical Association (BMA).

“In the event that somebody needs care – for instance for malignancy, heart inconvenience, a breathing condition or a neurological issue – they should get it when they need it.”

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Their remarks come in the midst of developing apprehensions about a second rush of contaminations and mounting worry that the far reaching disturbance to clinic care that started in March, and patients’ feelings of dread about going into medical clinic, prompted a great many patients biting the dust avoidably of malignant growth and coronary illness and will prompt further fatalities in the years ahead.

More than 1 million less patients experienced arranged medical procedure in England in April, May and June, and 30,000 to 40,000 couldn’t begin disease treatment as emergency clinics released a large number of patients and suspended a considerable lot of their standard administrations to focus on treating those with Covid-19.

Inaccessibility of care, pair with patients’ hesitance to go into medical clinic, have been connected to the way that in England 12,000 more peoplethan common have kicked the bucket of ailment not connected to Covid as of late, for example, cardiovascular failures, as indicated by the Office for National Statistics (ONS).
One malignant growth master has assessed that anyplace somewhere in the range of 7,000 and 35,000 patients could kick the bucket throughout the following year as an immediate aftereffect of passing up NHS care as of late.

“The NHS needed to stop practically completely arranged medical procedure toward the start of the Covid emergency, and we just can’t let that happen once more. Things should be done any other way despite any further spike,” Mortensen told the Guardian.

Junior specialist Jared Leggett visits a patient at the Royal Blackburn Teaching Hospital Photograph: Hannah McKay/AFP/Getty

Nagpaul included: “While not broadcasted in the day by day briefings, these [12,000] overabundance passings are the same amount of a misfortune and misfortune to friends and family as those happening from the infection.”

Mortensen and Nagpaul’s alerts to NHS managers that they should discover approaches to keep up typical consideration in case of a subsequent wave comes in the midst of mounting fears about the developing number of contaminations and the ongoing ascent in the R rate in certain districts of England and Scotland which has prompted various neighborhood lockdowns being forced on towns, for example, Leicester and Aberdeen.

The NHS should never again be a Covid-just assistance. There is an obligation to the a huge number of patients holding up out of luck and agony

Medical clinics should set up more “Covid-light” locales to empower specialists to continue regular activities, for example, hip and knee substitutions and waterfall expulsions, and utilize the NHS’s £400m-a-month manage private emergency clinics, Mortensen recommended. The NHS ought to likewise take a gander at utilizing the seven Nightingale medical clinics it made from the get-go in the pandemic as additional limit with respect to non-Covid care, included Nagpaul.

The NHS is attempting to organize care for the huge number of patients who passed up care lately, a significant number of whom are confronting a long deferral before they can get seen. In any case, it could see its treatment holding up list take off if there is a rehash of the shutdown that NHS England CEO Sir Simon Stevens requested in March, the BMA manager said.

“Beside the individual trouble, torment and possibly dangerous effect that deferring care would have on people, a hazard expanding the accumulation further would have a grave ramification for the NHS later on.

“The thump on of not tending to this now and postponing further consideration during a potential second wave could imply that we are continually attempting to find the missed consideration,” said Nagpaul.

The NHS Confederation, which speaks to clinics, has just recognized that the administration’s exceptional stopping of ordinary consideration included “a horrible expense” for patients requiring non-Covid care. Niall Dickson, its CEO, stated: “The NHS can flex and will be there for patients again if there is a subsequent wave. The test this time will be to run both Covid and non-Covid administrations in equal similar to is conceivable.”

Emergency clinics are endeavoring to clear the build-up that developed. In any case, they are hampered by social separating restricting the quantity of patients they can have nearby and staff wearing individual defensive gear, diminishing the quantity of tasks that they can perform.

Sir Simon Stevens has advised medical clinics to come back to giving 80% of arranged tasks by September and 90% by October, to diminish the excess beyond what many would consider possible before a subsequent wave. Photo: Victoria Jones/PA
Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals trust has started running ophthalmology centers at the end of the week in an offer to handle its build-up of patients with sight issues anticipating indicative tests. Ninety patients will go to on both Saturday and Sunday. Patients anticipating a CT or MRI check, which assume a key job in diagnosing malignant growth, are likewise being welcome to go to new end of the week radiology centers.

The Academy of Medical Sciences a month ago assessed that upwards of 120,000 individuals could pass on of Covid this winter and the NHS could be overpowered if a subsequent wave shows up simultaneously as clinics are battling to manage the typical spike in influenza and other occasional breathing issues.

The clinical pioneers’ intercession drew a sharp reaction from NHS England, which would not preclude a subsequent shutdown.

“Indeed, even at the tallness of coronavirus, for each one Covid quiet in clinic, there were two other in-patients being treated for different conditions, so it is really false to propose the NHS was ever a ‘Covid-just help’,” said a representative.

“In excess of 5,000,000 dire tests, checks and different medicines occurred during the pinnacle of the infection, including 65,000 patients getting fundamental malignant growth treatment. How the wellbeing administration needs to react to any further Covid pinnacle will mostly rely upon exactly how large it is.”

Stevens has advised medical clinics to return to giving 80% of arranged tasks by September and 90% by October, so as to decrease the overabundance beyond what many would consider possible before a subsequent wave hits.

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Daily Mail News Headlines

‘White’ artificial intelligence risks exacerbating racial inequality, study suggests

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artificial intelligence risks

The University of Cambridge study inspected AI in the public arena, remembering for films, Google look, stock pictures and robot voices.

Scientists proposed machines have unmistakable racial personalities and this sustains “genuine world” racial generalizations.

Ming the Merciless from the film Flash Gordon is a case of ‘extraterritorial racial generalizations’, the examination said

Non-conceptual AI in web internet searcher results generally had either Caucasian highlights or were the shading white, as indicated by the specialists.

Most virtual voices in gadgets talked in “standard white working class English” as “thoughts of including dark tongues have been excused as too disputable or outside the objective market,” the examination finished up.

The specialists dissected ongoing examination from a scope of fields, including Human-Computer Interaction and Critical Race Theory, to exhibit that machines can be “racialised”, and this propagates “genuine world” racial predispositions.

This remembers work for how robots are believed to have unmistakable racial characters, with dark robots getting more online maltreatment, and an investigation indicating that individuals feel nearer to virtual operators when they see shared racial personality.
Training upheaval: ‘simulated intelligence machines will supplant educators’, claims scholarly

As per the researchers from Cambridge’s Leverhulme Center for the Future of Intelligence (CFI), like other sci-fi tropes, AI has since quite a while ago reflected racial reasoning.

They highlighted extraterritorial racial generalizations, for example, the “orientalised” outsider of Ming the Merciless to the Caribbean exaggeration of Jar Binks.

In any case, they proposed AI is depicted as white, in light of the fact that dissimilar to species from different planets, it has credits used to “legitimize imperialism and isolation” previously.

Co-creator, Dr Stephen Cave, said generally ground-breaking on-screen robots are white or played by white entertainers, including Terminator, Blade Runner, Metropolis and Ex Machina.

“Androids of metal or plastic are given white highlights, for example, in I, Robot. Indeed, even incorporeal AI – from HAL 9000 to Samantha in Her – have white voices,” he said.

“Without a doubt, as of late have a couple of TV shows, for example, Westworld, utilized AI characters with a blend of skin tones.”

Lead specialist Dr Kanta Dihal stated: “Given that society has, for a considerable length of time, advanced the relationship of knowledge with white Europeans, it is not out of the ordinary that when this culture is approached to envision a keen machine, it envisions a white machine.

“Individuals trust AI to decide. Social delineations encourage the possibility that AI is less questionable than people.”

She cautioned that if AI socioeconomics don’t differentiate, racial disparity will make it harder for non-white individuals to progress in the innovation field.

“In situations where these frameworks are racialised as white, that could have perilous ramifications for people that are not,” she said.

Dr Dihal closed: “The apparent whiteness of AI will make it more hard for minorities to progress in the field.

“On the off chance that the engineer segment doesn’t broaden, AI stands to intensify racial disparity.”

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Business

Local lockdown restrictions could change tomorrow after first review

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Local lockdown restrictions

Clergymen had said the standards – which restriction individuals from various family units meeting in a private home or nursery following a spike in coronavirus cases – would apply from 12 PM on July 31.

An audit of the current guidelines, which influence Greater Manchester, portions of East Lancashire and West Yorkshire, and Leicester, was set to happen today, with the outcomes set to be made open tomorrow.

In the event that authorities settle on any progressions to the limitations, a declaration ought to be made tomorrow first thing, with nearby pioneers made aware of any progressions first.

The Department for Health and Social Care is working with Public Health England, the Joint Biosecurity Center, NHS Test and Trace and the significant neighborhood specialists.

Laws implementing the limitations came into powerful at 12 PM on Wednesday.

Anybody discovered ridiculing the guidelines could be fined £100 up to a limit of £3,200 for rehash offenses.

The individuals who have shaped a help bubble and are “connected” family units, individuals sharing childcare obligations, and individuals going to work are for the most part excluded from the new guidelines.

The laws likewise don’t make a difference to individuals going to a birth at the mother’s solicitation, those meeting a perishing cherished one, or anybody moving house

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